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Diabetes Mellitus Reasearch Paper

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Research Study

Background

‘Diabetes Mellitus’ (Type 2 Diabetes) is a life threatening disease which could affected 21 million Americans and is now occurring in the younger population as well. It can be called as an emerging epidemic of the 21st Century and owing to its considerable incidence frequency, it might threaten the entire health care system even (Alberti, 2001) so, should be dealt in an efficient mode.

Review of Literature

Diabetes is a clinical syndrome characterized by high blood sugars due to deficiency of insulin (Sukha & Rubin, 2007). Insulin deficiency may arise in several ways such as destruction of β– cells of the pancreas. Insulin deficiency affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, electrolytes and water leading to major organ functional disorders throughout the body (Leslie et al., 2008) and it’s the most common cause of blindness, kidney failure, and below knee amputations in adults. In addition, the risk of heart disease and stroke is two to four folds greater among people with Diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005).

Although, the exact cause of Diabetes is unknown but, genetic and predisposing factors may contribute to the onset of the disease (Al Shafee et al., 2008). Besides, according to “The   International Diabetes Federation”, as a result of expansion, people in developed countries such as; USA  have abandoned the “traditional lifestyles” that could be called healthier and might be distinguished by regular and dynamic physical activity along with survival on nutritious diet (McManus et al., 2006).

Moreover, they have adopted junk food that cannot be called excellent for health and have also become habitual of application of equipments and machines for even such activities which can be performed without them easily.

Due to the implementation of such kind of lifestyle, there might be observed increment in the number of obese people and such a rise in the obesity and overweight has increased the risk for Diabetes as well (Trisha et al., 1998).

Since; the maximum people who are suffering from Diabetes lie in the productive age ranges which are in fact expected to stimulate the economic growth of their countries for the purpose of achievement of established “International Development Goals” therefore; their diminished productivity might prove to be quite harmful for their nations. That’s why different government and non-government organizations are trying to search out the major causes of Diabetes so that; it could be overcome via eliminating such factors (Trisha et al., 1998).

As said by researchers, Diabetes is such chronic disease that necessitates constant medical care and patient education to prevent complications since; the major reason behind the development of Diabetes is that people are not aware about the risks factors and if they could be educated then, it can be expected that they would take better care of themselves via avoiding the causes of such diseases as maximum as possible and by seeking for proper treatment and care. So, knowledge may be regarded as; the ‘greatest weapon’ of mankind to face the challenge of Diabetes mellitus (McManus et al., 2006).

Problem statement

The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes continues to rise steadily in United States residents. It is approximated that Diabetes affects 8 percent of adults (Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, 2002). What is alarming is that most individuals living with type-2 Diabetes may not show clinical symptoms and are not tested for the condition. It is estimated that the incidence of individuals with a positive diagnosis of Diabetes would increase by 165% between the years 2000 and 2050, and the lifetime risk of development of the disease at approximately 38.5% for females and 32.8% for males (Narayan et al, 2003).

Efficient management of Diabetes includes the patient developing an understanding of his or her disease and incorporation of such knowledge into an effective self-care program (Watson & DuFord, 1992). This study will assess the knowledge of Diabetes mellitus in hospitalized patients and identify factors that prevent the application of knowledge in the management of Diabetes.

Purpose statement

A study conducted by Levine (2008) identifies that 171 million people worldwide suffer from DM with 3.8 million deaths reported annually from complications of the disease. It is projected that the number of people with DM will rise to 366 million by the year 2030.

To manage Diabetes, individuals must have a good knowledge of the disease, medication,

diet, as well as genetic and environmental risk factors and how to modify them. One of the reasons why people do not manage their Diabetes appropriately may be due to complete or incomplete lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease. Patients' knowledge about Diabetes and related complications is currently perceived as an integral part of their management along with their pharmacological treatment (Coates & Boore, 1996). This study aims to assess the basic knowledge and identify factors that prevent the application of knowledge on management of Diabetes.

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